Category Archives: Conservation Agriculture

Bounty Harvest

The Kenyan coast is famed for being one of the top tourist destinations in Kenya; it is characterized by a distinctive hot and humid climate. This makes it hot for the better part of the year despite the heavy downpours between April and May and the occasional showers towards the end of the year.

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Gede, situated in the coastal region, has poor infertile soils and little rainfall all year round. Thus Farming in this area is practiced on minimal levels as the probability of the crops surviving or obtaining a good harvest is very low.

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At our farming God’s way demonstration plot at Gede, which is about 110 metres squared.We are always assured of a good harvest despite the poor rainfall and soil conditions. Wondering how this is possible? This is made possible by incorporating farming God’s way techniques into farming, which are; carrying out mulching, zero tillage, use of compost manure, no burning, good timing and most important of all putting God first.

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We planted maize on the 25th March 2014 at a time when the first rainfall showers are experienced around Gede. People around were surprised and asked if the rain was really enough for planting. The shock on their faces cannot be explained when they saw the maize on our demonstration plot had germinated as most of them expected it not to, because of the scarce rainfall.

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And when the rains came later on in May, the maize was flourishing as compared to the maize on the nearby farms which had just been planted. We harvested our maize on 19th July 2014 getting about 50kgs.The nearby communities have been visiting us to find out more about this and all we can say is come forth lets farm God’s way.

Gede Farming God’s way plot

When soil (the essential ingredient in any farming enterprise) is in poor health, plants cannot grow to their full potential. Undisturbed by man, soil is usually covered by a canopy of shrubs and trees, by dead and decaying leaves or by a thick mat of grass. Whatever the vegetation, it protects the soil when the rain falls or the wind blows. The leaves and branches of trees and the cushion of grass absorb the force of raindrops, and root systems of plants hold the soil together. Even in drought, the roots of native grasses, which extend several metres into the ground, help tie down the soil and keep it from blowing away.

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A Rocha Kenya farming God’s way project in Gede is a unique farming method that entirely revolves around incorporating trees into farming, use of mulch and composite manure. In this demonstration plot, Mango (Mangifera indica) is grown together with maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) crops. One may wonder, why incorporate mango trees into a farm? Mango is tolerant of a wide range of conditions from hot and humid to cool and dry and the fruits have a high nutritional value

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The trees are useful for shade, timber, as a support for climbing plants , improving soil fertility (by providing mulch from the leaves falling off the trees) ,attracting a host of insects such as bees which are beneficial to farming and are also a good source of medicine.

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And as an organization that works to care for God’s creation we encourage each and every person to step up; bring forth hope- Farm God’s way!

 

Ecosystem based God’s Farming?

Human activities have changed the character and quality of our soils over time. We have destroyed protective vegetation cover and have kept soil bare for long periods of time as we have actively added chemicals to the soil. All these activities have impaired and even destroyed the ability of the soil to carry out its essential functions.

So what do we do? How do we care for the soil? How do we care for it to benefit our neighbors as well?

What is ecosystem based God’s Farming? This involves incorporating biodiversity conservation into farming.

Recently a group from Kingdom Farmers Organization visited us for two day training on ecosystem based God’s Farming. During the training these farmers got to learn how planting different species of trees and shrubs such as Tephrosia vogelli, Faidherbia Albida and Tithonia diversifolia helps in farming. Benefits include but are not limited to pest control, improving soil fertility, attracting a host of insects which are beneficial to farming without forgetting that trees and shrubs give us timber and fodder for animals.

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In the afternoon of the second day we had a walk on the nature trails. It was like a competition for knowledge on local medicine. Some farmers gave Raphael who was facilitating a run for his money in not only identifying medicinal plants but explaining their preparations and dosages. From Erythrina abyssinica,Warbugia ugandensis, Milletia dura, Prunus africanus, all trees seemed to have a medicinal value. Doesn’t God love Africa? It was great to learn ways in which some trees control crop pests from termites to aphids and mealy bugs. It was also amazing to see the connection between that and the birds. The farmers were thrilled to learn how birds are beneficial to their farming with some even predicting the rainy season.

In the final evaluation of the training, it was great to hear farmers begin talking things like ecosystem services, biological pest control, maintenance of soil structure and fertility, nutrient cycling and hydrological services all as benefits that they get from nature. It was quite emotional to get some of the farmers ‘confessing’ how they had mistreated nature hence the poor yields they were getting from their farms.

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Lessons for making green manure seemed very interesting.

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One of the farmers summed up what he had gotten from the training as “ I now have a new desire to have a farm or garden full of bees, sun birds ,butterflies together with enough food for my family” So just like Adam let’s take care of God’s creation.Genesis 2:15 And the Lord God took the man, and put him into the Garden of Eden to dress it and too keep it.

 

 

 

Dakatcha Livelihood Project

Question is; why God even in farming?  Where is the connection?

Crop farming is the principal economic activity in Coastal Kenya; especially for inhabitants found further mainland. However practices such as slash and burn, poor soil management techniques coupled with severe deforestation has led to lots of erosion and depletion of nutrients with studies showing that on average, 150 tones of soil per hectare per year is lost through erosion leading to great loss of livelihood for the already poor communities.

We cannot blame the communities for these statistics but rather on the urge and pressure to produce enough to fend for themselves and their relatively large families. But what if we stopped pressuring the soil to produce more for us and instead incorporate the Lord in our farming? What if we took a proactive role in caring for creation alongside farming?

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It is worth noting that God is the first farmer and that Biblical principles are very relevant in the way we handle our natural resources especially land. The book of Hosea 4:6: my people perish because of lack of knowledge. With this in mind; A Rocha Kenya in partnership with Anglican Development Services (ADS) set up a livelihood project in Dakatcha, Kilifi County in Coastal Kenya. The principal aim of this project is to improve livelihood and care for creation among the inhabitants of this area.

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The project will see the community trained on more efficient and sustainable farming techniques ‘Farming God’ Way’ to increase their farm produce and reduce their reliance on the natural resources for survival. Care for creation seminars for churches will also be conducted; where congregations will be encouraged to take up caring for the creation as a role given to us by God. Environmental education for schools is also lined up to create early awareness to students about environmental conservation, complementing the Arabuko-Sokoke Schools and Eco-tourism Scheme (ASSETS).

Participatory Rural Appraisal will be conducted; where members of the community will have an opportunity to personally asses their challenges, strength and opportunities and draw their way forward. This will enable people from Dakatcha which includes five villages; Kirosa, Mulunguni, Boyani, Chamari and Muche kenzi an opportunity to set a suitable development agenda. So far most villages have elected their committee members who will coordinate development plans. Training on ‘Farming God’s Way’ has also started. We pray that the Lord will grant the villagers the right state of mind and heart to participate in this process so that they do not ‘perish’!

 

 

 

Nairobi farmers go ‘God’s way’ in their farms……

Cities over the world are known to be biodiversity deserts. They are synonymous with tall buildings, lots of traffic and a sea of humanity, so is Nairobi. The one amazing thing about Nairobi however, is its ability to combine the hustle and bustle that is characteristic of a rapidly growing city in Africa with rare biodiversity.
Seated in my office at the Karara plot in Nairobi’s Karen, I enjoy this stunning site of a beautiful forest, with a wave of lovely butterflies gracing the flowers, a community of rather friendly monkeys complete a magnificent and quite ecosystem.
On this particular day however, I gladly welcome an interesting visitor; Sarah Young from A Rocha International. She quickly blends in as I lead the team in transplanting a few seedlings; Meru Oak, Ehretia symosa and Margaritaria discoidea in our garden.
We then decide to seize the opportunity, invited farmers from the neighborhood for two days of training on Farming God’s way. It was a wonderful experience sharing with farmers from diverse religious backgrounds; and by this I mean a huge Muslim delegation including the vice-chairman of Supreme Council of Kenya Muslim!
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Additionally, we ministered to them on the need to show our love for God’s creation not only in the farm but also in our everyday lives.
Encouraging enough, I have recently been answering lots of phone calls from farmers asking specific clarifications regarding the same, which tells me that people are going ‘God’s way’ in their farms!

Dakatcha Woodlands finally safe from Jatropha biofuel threat

It has been a long haul to try and stop the Jatropha biofuel threat of at first 50,000ha of land being cleared for plantations, then 10,000ha and now finally NEMA have officially stopped the project from going ahead and the Clarke’s Weavers and Sokoke Scops Owls and other endangered wildlife as well as the community members who would have had their lifestyles and societies dramatically changed and poverty increased can breathe a sigh of relief. NatureKenya led the fray and often were very much in the hot seat with threats and even attacks being made on them (and A Rocha Kenya was included in some of these too) by the supporters of the project. NatureKenya deserve a lot of thanks for their effort and there is an excellent write-up by Birdlife about this with further details.

In response to this we are keen to get some further work happening with the Dakatcha communities to help them improve their own incomes and ways of living in that special environment without impacting it too negatively. We are looking at building on the initial efforts we’ve had of introducing “Farming God’s Way” or “Conservation Agriculture” to some of the communities which, for those who have taken the training on board and followed it, has made a huge difference in the outputs from their farms. Below is a shot of Elizabeth in her shamba (farm) who’s husband Katana works for us in Dakatcha and who has really got excited about Farming God’s Way. They have carefully followed the simple method of a) no ploughing, b) use plenty of mulch and c) rotate your crops and as a result their maize (corn) in the last short rains was huge and dense as you can see in the photos.

 

Elizabeth in her shamba showing how high and dense the maize has got – and beans adjacent to the maize.

Their neighbour’s crop which was planted in the traditional way was a very different picture…:

…there is therefore a lot of hope if we can persuade people to take it up. Unfortunately we’ve heard rumours of a response from community members to assistance the Red Cross is offering people in the form of ‘food for work’ – which is a great programme to have and certainly helps those who are really destitute, but what they have not counted on is that people are apparently purposely not planting maize well so that it fails and so that when the Red Cross team pass by that place they see only poor crops and therefore offer bags of maizemeal in return for digging 2’x2’x2′ holes in which to plant 9 seeds… this method may work in kitchen gardens, but it certainly hasn’t worked in Dakatcha. So whilst the Red Cross programme is designed to help people, in the long run it actually hampers growth and keeps people in a state of poverty. this has meant that very few farmers have kept coming to our training sessions and fewer still are actually implementing it. However we are convinced it is the Way to go and will pursue raising funds to support the project in Dakatcha – donations greatly received. A single 2-day training workshop for 20 farmers costs only $12 per person so do join us in this effort to assist the farmers and communities in Dakatcha.

National Env Management Authority director suspended over Dakatcha biofuel issue

I have been sent this link to a newspaper report on the suspension of a NEMA Director for having given clearance for the Dakatcha jatropha biofuel project when the NEMA Board had not cleared it. There was clearly some dodgy stuff going on (exchange of $$??) that led to this.

This really is an answer to prayer – that the jatropha project in Dakatcha is becoming less and less likely to happen. Katana, our A Rocha Kenya staff member who is from and lives in Dakatcha where he is working on our Farming God’s Way programme and doing bird surveys and helping NatureKenya in their conservation work there, came last week and reported that the vibe on the ground is that the project won’t go ahead. If you pray… please keep praying for a complete stop to this madness and instead for opening doors for us and NatureKenya to implement some really sustainable and good programmes to help the community raise their standard of living whilst reducing their impact on the forest and habitat.

More from Katana later… he’s got some awesome stories.

 

“Farming God’s Way” in threatened Dakatcha Woodlands

We’ve been somewhat quiet over Christmas and New Year – getting away and having a much-needed break, though many times this is when developers like to take action because they know that there are fewer people looking. This seems to have been what has happened in Dakatcha with the jatropha project – just before Christmas, new machinery was brought in and activity levels at the Italian jatropha project picked up. The worry is that the project will go ahead at a level which is still unacceptable for a) a crop which has overwhelming evidence that it will fail and only bring problems and greater poverty to the site and b) a site that is globally important for rare and endangered biodiversity.

NatureKenya have continued to do a great job at highlighting what is going on though there hasn’t been much news from them either of late… will have to do some ferreting to find out what’s going on.

However the great news is that the Bountiful Grains Trust based in South Africa but working throughout southern and eastern Africa have decided to continue working with us as A Rocha Kenya on the Farming God’s Way (FGW) work amongst farmers in the Dakatcha area. This is awesome and Pius Mutie has just come back from Dakatcha with our A Rocha Staff member Katana where they’ve done ten days of follow up training with the farmers and church members who have been involved already and anyone else who is keen to learn about it.

The beauty of FGW is that it not only works really well in hugely increasing productivity for farmers who practise it correctly, but it also gives excellent teaching on core life principles based on solid biblical teaching. Katana has been putting the FGW techniques he has learnt into practice and has reaped the benefits – as can be seen in the photos below of his shamba (farm) and the size of the maize / corn he managed to grow last year. For comparison, his neighbours crop is shown which shows how traditional farming techniques really do serious harm to communities still trying to live by them.

Katana in his FGW-farmed maize

Katana’s neighbour’s maize – taken the same time

What is the difference with this form of agriculture? The main principles taught by FGW are that you should do your farming with excellence, do it on time (apparently the main reason there is hunger in Africa – farmers plant late and so miss the full benefit of the rains and thus get under sized crops and sometimes none at all), do it with joy and without wasting anything. Following these and applying them with the core techniques of no ploughing, lots of mulching of dead vegetation on the crops and rotating your crops are the key ingredients to getting a bumper harvest from your fields.

We really hope to spread this news far and wide and get more and more farmers using it so as to not only help them get more from their fields, but also to stop erosion, retain moisture in the soils, reduce the area of land required for farming and thus saving some more indigenous habitats. We hope to introduce FGW with our ASSETS community project around Arabuko-Sokoke Forest and Mida Creek and even at the Sabaki River Mouth with the communities there – but that’s a wee way into the future from now.

The recent training has gone pretty well though the turn out wasn’t as high as we’d hoped but there was an enthusiastic reception from those who were there. Our vision is to spread it to as many people as possible and have many of the community being able to feed themselves as well as having food left over to sell and in doing so protecting the forest from further destruction.

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Dakatcha Woodlands under threat of ‘eco-(un)friendly’ jatropha biodiesel project

The Dakatcha Woodlands form one of the 61 internationally important sites in Kenya for bird conservation (and therefore by assumption other biodiversity as well) – known as an ‘IBA’ (Important Bird Area).

a view of the Brachystegia woodland in Marafa – a few years ago before it was hit with charcoaling

It is the only other place on the planet that Clarke’s Weaver Ploceus golandii can be found apart from Arabuko-Sokoke Forest 30kms to the south and it also holds several other Threatened species such as Sokoke Pipit and more recently we discovered a population of Sokoke Scops Owls Otus irenae there. We have been working with NatureKenya to have the woodlands protected, to encourage the local community to stop cutting trees for charcoal and timber and instead to use it sustainably.

Endemic Clarke’s Weaver Ploceus golandii (by Steve Garvie)

NatureKenya has been doing a great work with local groups of young people to encourage them to take up birding and other conservation activities. This is one of the groups with Dominic Mumbu, the NK manager 4th from the left.

This year, however, an even more devastating threat is looming – one that is masquerading as an ‘eco-friendly project’… for bio-diesel. The Malindi County Council has welcomed a proposal by an investor, Kenya Jatropha Energy Limited, to clear large tracts of land for growing Jatropha curcas.  This South American bush has been aggressively promoted in Kenya for the ‘biodiesel’ extracted from the oil in its seeds. It is now being tried in localities that range from rainfall-rich Western Kenya to desert-like Magadi area. Yet little is currently known of the plant’s suitability, its yield under different conditions, and the market capacity. Talking to Ann and Ian Robertson in Malindi – Ian being an experienced farmer and agriculturalist and Ann one of East Africa’s leading botanists – who have planted some jatropha in their garden out of interest, they report that the yield from jatropha is hugely unpredictable, some years it can be good and others it can be dire – and with no apparent reason. As a result it is highly unlikely to be suitable crop to grow on a large commercial scale and much better to be grown by small holders who can exploit the good years and get something out of it and make ends meet on the bad years with the other crops they are growing.

The jatropha / biodiesel issue is going to be one of the hottest debates going in East Africa environmentally in the next few years. A lot of businessmen are likely to jump on the band wagon where they can see big funding coming from the West to fund what some see as effectively covering up the West’s guilt complex for the vast amounts of carbon pollution it is producing – i.e. “give money to developing countries to produce biodiesel so that we can maintain our lifestyles and claim to have reduced carbon emissions – oh, and shame about that priceless forest or wetland that was cleared to grow an alien monoculture, but it’s all for the greater benefit of the planet…”

Anyway – this debate could go on quite a long time here! The point is Dakatcha Woodlands really are under threat of disappearing under an alien monoculture – and thus causing probably at least one species to go extinct.

As A Rocha Kenya we are committed to finding lasting, long-term solutions for conserving such habitats and sites whilst at the same time ensuring that local communities can improve their lifestyles and living standards but reduce their ecological footprint. We have already started working with churches in the Dakatcha Woodlands to introduce them to Conservation Agriculture, a form of farming that hugely improves productivity whilst conserving the soil and in fact improving the soil such that farms become more productive over the years and not less (as they do using the traditional farming methods). This is just one way of seeking to improve the lot of the local communities while teaching them the importance of caring for the environment – God’s creation.


Conservation Agriculture training by Paul Simpson in Marafa, Nov ’08 for church leaders

We’ve employed Gabriel Katana to work alongside the NatureKenya manager in Dakatcha and to also follow up on the Conservation Agriculture workshops we’ve held with church leaders there.

Katana – our right hand man in Dakatcha and doing a great job.
He’s also assisting in bird surveys and done some excellent work on finding how far the Sokoke Scops Owl is found as well as looking out for Clarke’s Weavers and keeping an eye open for where they might breed. The area is quite large however and currently he’s trying to do all this on just a bicycle or sometimes borrowing the piki (motorbike) that the NK manager uses. For him to be really effective we desperately need a piki for him – and then funds to cover its running. Katana’s salary has kindly been covered by a church in the UK, but any assistance towards purchasing a piki would be hugely appreciated.

More to follow…

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Almost 3,000 birds ringed in 12 hours with record numbers of Marsh Warblers & flocks of migrating Amur Falcons

It was a busy and hectic night made worse by rain on and off and then a huge downpour at 5:30am just before we opened nets. We therefore only opened 2/3 of the ‘L’ of nets to start with expecting the Marsh Warbler ‘boom’ that happens at around 6am when they start moving out of roost – but it didn’t come. With the rain and thick mist which then continued on into the morning till about 9:30am the birds just sat in the bushes and only moved off slowly throughout the morning. We had to close nets at about 7:30 due to rain but already had 1,000 birds to ring which we worked through and as the weather cleared up at 10am opened up nets again and kept catching, then opening the swallow nets too and ending up working through to 3pm!! Total for the day: 2,95 birds ringed!

Two of the three ringing tables we had going to handle the number of birds at the Leopard Cocktail Bar:

Ringing at the Leopard Cocktail Bar
A truly international team: From left: Alain (Switzerland), Yoav (Israel), Raimund (Germany), Bert (Holland), Mercy (Kenya), David Pearson (UK), Graeme Backhurst (Kenya), Bernard (Kenya).

The vast majority of birds were Ap’s – i.e. Marsh Warblers… and in fact it was a record-setting day in that well over 2,000 were ringed, the most we’ve ever ringed of a single species in one day in 39 years!! The previous high was 1,500 Sprossers in 1995.

With the rain around suddenly there were falcons – mostly Amur Falcons though a couple of Sootys were also seen. We estimated a good 500-700 Amurs came through in about 2-3 hours feeding on flying ants some just over our heads, others peppering the sky in the distance. Along with these were the Eurasian Rollers – again several 100 moving up the valley and over the ridge heading for Tanzania. It’s awesome to see the migration actually happening!!

Highlights ringed – not a huge variety, but again good numbers of Basra Reed Warblers, at last a few more Irania (White-throated Robin), a few Garden Warblers, a few more Upcher’s Warblers and a Sedge Warbler.

Hippolais languida Upcher’s Warbler Hippolais languida – note the blacker tail and you can see the old (brown) wing feathers contrasting with new (black) feathers.

Also through the day we finally had a load of Steppe Eagles, huge migrants (compared to the warblers!) from Asia that had been conspicuously missing so far.

A Great White Heron chugged around overhead the night nets for a while in the night followed by a flock of Cattle Egrets attracted to the lights an hour or so before dawn. They stayed all day in the end – pictured here perched all over the dead tree outside the lodge like Christmas decorations (see pic below). There was also a Dwarf Bittern flopping around in the bush but managed to avoid the nets and a Squacco Heron was part of the Cattle Egret contingent but realised it was in the wrong tour group once the sun came up and it slunk off into the bush on its own.

Cattle Egrets on tree - Ngulia